Thursday, December 31, 2009

Runaway Vigilance Hormone Linked to Panic Attacks

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Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I had a great Christmas with my family, I hope you did too. I was happy to read this breakthrough about Panic Disorder. That is what I have but is controlled with paxil. New break throughs can lead to even better treatments for everyone. I will be sharing any updates on this discovery I receive. Happy New Year, may all of us have better mental health in 2010 and feel the peace that the women expresses in the picture above. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet:)

Science Update
December 28, 2009
Runaway Vigilance Hormone Linked to Panic Attacks
Translational Experiments in Rats, Humans Suggest New Medication Target

A study has linked panic disorder to a wayward hormone in a brain circuit that regulates vigilance. While too little of the hormone, called orexin, is known to underlie narcolepsy, the new study suggests that too much of it may lead to panic attacks that afflict 6 million American adults.

"Targeting the brain's orexin system may hold promise for a new generation of anti-anxiety treatments," said Thomas R. Insel, M.D., Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health. "This is a good example of how translational experiments in rats and humans can potentially yield clinical benefits."

NIMH grantee Anantha Shekhar, M.B., Ph.D., and colleagues at Indiana University and Lund University, report on their findings online Dec. 27, 2009 in the journal Nature Medicine. They showed that blocking orexin gene expression or its receptor prevented panic attack-like responses in rats. The study also revealed that panic disorder patients have excess levels of the hormone.

Background
Orexin, also called hypocretin, is secreted exclusively in a circuit emanating from the brain's hypothalamus, known to regulate arousal, wakefulness and reward.

Panic attacks can be experimentally-induced by infusing susceptible humans with a normally innocuous salt called sodium lactate. The salt similarly triggers panic-like anxiety behaviors in susceptible rat strains, suggesting that something is altered in their arousal circuit. Since sodium lactate activated orexin-secreting neurons in panic-prone rats but not in control rats, the researchers hypothesized that something might be orexin.

Results of This Study
The investigators first discovered that increased gene expression in orexin-secreting neurons correlated with increases in anxiety-like behavior in panic-prone rats following sodium lactate infusions. Using a technique called RNA interference, they then protected the panic-prone rats from developing anxiety behaviors following the infusions by first injecting them with a genetically-engineered agent that prevented orexin genes from turning on. Blocking orexin receptors with a drug that specifically binds to it also blocked the anxiety like behavior following the infusions. This mirrored effects, seen in both rats and humans, of benzodiazepine medications used to treat panic disorder.

The excess sleepiness of narcolepsy, traced a decade ago to loss of orexin-secreting neurons in the arousal circuit, might seem to be an opposite state of a panic attack. However, the researchers demonstrated in rats that such sedation could not account for orexin's effects on anxiety. Also in rats, they traced orexin neurons to their end target to pinpoint the specific brain site that accounts for the anxiety effects, disentangled from cardio-respiratory components of the panic response.

Finally, by measuring orexin in cerebrospinal fluid of 53 patients, the researchers showed that those with just panic disorder had higher levels of orexin than those with both panic disorder and depression.
Significance

Taken together, these results and other evidence suggest a critical role for an overactive orexin system in producing panic attacks, say the researchers.
What's Next?

Medications that block the orexin receptor may provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of panic disorder, they add.

The research was also supported, in part, by NIH's National Center for Research Resources.

Reference
A key role for orexin in panic anxiety. Johnson PL, Truitt W, Fitz SD, Kelley PE, Dietrich A, Sanghani S, Traskman-Bendz L, Goddard AW, Brundin, L, Shekhar A. Nature Medicine. Epub 2009 Dec 27.

Saturday, December 26, 2009

Ava Maria

Hi Everyone, I hope you are all doing well. I am doing good. I decided to post this song on this blog in memory of my mother this Christmas. She always loved the holiday's being with her children and grandchildren. Raised a Catholic in her youth we played this song at her service. When I hear this song it brings her back to me. It is a beautiful song for a beautiful women. I will be updating on Mental Health again this week, I have gotten behind because I am working full time now. But I love to blog, and miss it when I don't, so thanks for continuing to visit my blog, Take Care, Janet.




~English~

Ave Maria! Maiden mild!
Listen to a maiden's prayer!
Thou canst hear though from the wild,
Thou canst save amid despair.
Safe may we sleep beneath thy care,
Though banish'd, outcast and reviled -
Maiden! hear a maiden's prayer;
Mother, hear a suppliant child!
Ave Maria!

Ave Maria! undefiled!
The flinty couch we now must share
Shall seem this down of eider piled,
If thy protection hover there.
The murky cavern's heavy air
Shall breathe of balm if thou hast smiled;
Then, maiden! hear a maiden's prayer;
Mother, list a suppliant child!
Ave Maria!

Ave Maria! stainless styled!
Foul demons of the earth and air,
From this their wonted haunt exiled,
Shall flee before thy presence fair,
We bow us to our lot of care,
Beneath thy guidance reconciled;
Hear for a maid a maiden's prayer,
And for a father hear a child!
Ave Maria!

Monday, December 21, 2009

NAMI StigmaBuster

NAMI StigmaBuster Alert: December 18, 2009

Send Your Governor a New Year's Card
Happy New Year


NAMI's top priority for 2010 is to save state mental health services from massive state budget cuts.

Mental illness does not discriminate. It can strike anyone at any time and affects Democrats and Republicans alike. But with so many issues competing for decreasing state funds during a period of economic crisis, your voices are needed to speak out for thousands of individuals living with mental illness.

Too many times, mental illness is overlooked, marginalized, trivialized or stigmatized.

Without state and local mental health services, too many people living with mental illness end up in emergency rooms, hospitalized, in shelters, on the street or in jail.

State budget proposals are being drawn up now.

* As we approach the New Year, please send holiday cards-the bigger the better-to your governor and state legislators. Write "Please protect and strengthen mental health care in 2010. We can't take anymore cuts." Add a few short personal comments.
* Ask family and friends to do so as well.
* Here is a link to governors' statehouse postal addresses. Please check your state government's Web sites or other sources for addresses of your state legislators.

What a Year! Looking Back on 2009
The Soloist

NAMI's StigmaBusters made some strong steps forward this past year.

* The movie The Soloist premiered and is now a possible contender for an Academy Award in 2010. Nathanial Ayers, the violinist living with schizophrenia, on whom the movie is based, performed at the NAMI national convention.
* Actress Glenn Close launched the Bring Change2Mind campaign, joining the fight against stigma.
* NAMI launched its "Puzzle Pieces" public service announcements (PSAs) encouraging people to connect with and support people living with mental illness.
* During Mental Illness Awareness Week, PBS television stations broadcast Minds on the Edge: Facing Mental Illness, a provocative look at the mental health care system and indictment of stigma.

Happy Holidays


Thank you for your support this past year. Best wishes for a happy, healthy holiday season and the New Year.
We look forward to further progress in 2010.
Your support will continue to help make a difference in the new year.
Out of the Inbox
Because of the large number of StigmaBuster messages received, they cannot all be answered individually; however, we appreciate every e-mail and do review every stigma report and prioritize them for action.
We also appreciate receiving copies of responses. They are important in helping to coordinate strategy and pursue genuine dialogue. You are our eyes and ears! Your help makes a difference!

Sunday, December 13, 2009

Recalling Emotional Memory Opens Window of Opportunity to Re-Write it

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Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well, I am doing good. Sorry I have gotten behind on posting here. I just got a new job and have been working a lot and getting ready for the holiday with my family. I think this research is a great breakthrough for people who suffer PTSD, and many others disorders. I think it would help me with my anxiety disorder because I often wonder if some of it is PTSD from watching my mother suffer with her mental illness to the point of suicide in front of us young kids, I don't remember much of my childhood, the mind is kind, but that stuck out in my mind at the age of 10. A lot of memories of her driving off in an ambulance. My panic or anxiety disorder did not start until I was away from home and settled in my new home with Pete and Christa. It was as if it was a safe place to finally release all of that stress, although I did not know it at the time. My anxiety disorder is under control because of medicine, but I wonder if this type of treatment would make it possible to not be dependant on medicine. I think this will help a lot of people who have so many traumatic events in their lives to break free of the chains that still can bind us, especially men and women of war. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

Press Release
December 09, 2009
Non-Invasive Technique Blocks a Conditioned Fear in Humans
Recalling Emotional Memory Opens Window of Opportunity to Re-Write It

Scientists have for the first time selectively blocked a conditioned fear memory in humans with a behavioral manipulation. Participants remained free of the fear memory for at least a year. The research builds on emerging evidence from animal studies that reactivating an emotional memory opens a 6-hour window of opportunity in which a training procedure can alter it.

"Our results suggest a non-pharmacological, naturalistic approach to more effectively manage emotional memories," said Elizabeth Phelps, Ph.D., of New York University, a grantee of the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

Phelps and NIMH grantee and NYU colleague Joseph LeDoux, Ph.D., led the research team that reports on their discovery online Dec. 9, 2009 in the journal Nature.1

"Inspired by basic science studies in rodents, these new findings in humans hold promise for being translated into improved therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)," said NIMH Director Thomas R. Insel, M.D.

The results add support to the hypothesis that emotional memories are reconsolidated – rendered vulnerable to being modified – each time they are retrieved. That is, reactivating a memory opens what researchers call "reconsolidation window," a time-limited period when it can be changed.

"This adaptive update mechanism appears to have evolved to allow new information available at the time of retrieval to be incorporated into the brain's original representation of the memory," explained Phelps.

Earlier this year, LeDoux and colleagues exploited this potentially clinically important insight to erase a fear memory in rats. They first conditioned rats to fear a tone by pairing it with intermittent shocks. A day later, the rats were re-exposed to the tone, reactivating the fear memory. They then underwent a process to rewrite the fear, called extinction training, in which the tone was repeatedly presented without shocks.

However, the timing of this extinction training proved critical. Fear of the stimulus was erased only in rats trained within a 6-hour reconsolidation window after re-exposure to the feared tone. Fear responses returned in animals trained after the window closed, when the memory had apparently already solidified.

Normally, extinction training suppresses but does not erase the original fear memory. By first reactivating it – sounding the tone – just prior to extinction training, LeDoux and colleagues permanently erased the fear memory.

In the new study, Phelps and colleagues similarly conditioned human participants to fear colored squares by intermittently pairing them with mild wrist shocks.

As with the rats, a day later, the memory was first reactivated by re-exposing participants to the feared squares. A measure of nervous system arousal confirmed that they experienced a fear response. Extinction training – repeated trials of exposure to the colored squares without shocks – followed.

Again as in the rats, a day later, the fear response was banished only in human participants who underwent the extinction training soon after the fear reactivation. Those trained after the 6-hour consolidation window remained afraid of the squares – as did a control group that received extinction training without first experiencing reactivation of the fear memory.

In a follow-up experiment to gauge long-term effects a year later, 19 of the original participants received a potent regimen to re-instate the fear: four shocks followed by presentations of the colored squares.

Remarkably, those who had undergone extinction training within the reconsolidation window were largely spared significant effects. By contrast, those whose training had been delayed 6 hours or who hadn't experienced fear memory reactivation prior to extinction training experienced significant reinstatement of the fear response.

In a similar experiment, the researchers also confirmed that the fear memory was blocked only for the specific colored square for which fear memory was reactivated prior to extinction training. The effect did not generalize to a differently colored square associated with the shocks. This indicated that memory re-writing during reconsolidation is highly specific and that prior reactivation with the specific stimuli is critical.

"Timing may have a more important role in the control of fear than previously appreciated," Phelps suggested. "Our memory reflects our last retrieval of it rather than an exact account of the original event."

Evidence suggests that the behavioral manipulation may work through the same molecular mechanisms in the brain’s fear hub, the amygdala, as experimental medications under study for quelling traumatic emotional memories.

"Using a more natural intervention that captures the adaptive purpose of reconsolidation allows a safe and easily implemented way to prevent the return of fear," suggest the investigators.

diagram of fear re-writing procedure

Performing a behavioral manipulation during a memory reconsolidation, or updating, window of time following retrieval (red line at top) extinguished a conditioned fear memory in human subjects.

Source: Gregory Quirk, Ph.D., University of Puerto Rico3

fMRI scan showing amygdala

Evidence suggests that the behavioral manipulation may work through the same molecular mechanisms in the brain’s fear hub, the amygdala (yellow/red), as experimental medications under study for quelling traumatic emotional memories. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scan showing activation of the amygdala.

Source: Elizabeth Phelps, Ph.D, NYU

References

1Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Schiller D, Monfils MH, Raio CM, Johnson DC, LeDoux JE, Phelps EA. Nature. 2009 December 9.

2Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: key to persistent attenuation of fear memories. Monfils MH, Cowansage KK, Klann E, LeDoux JE. Science. 2009 May 15;324(5929):951-5. Epub 2009 Apr 2.PMID: 19342552

3Editing out fear. Quirk GJ, Milad MR. Nature. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

How to help a friend or relative who has bipolar disorder?, and Support for caregivers
















Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well, I am doing good. I am reaching the end of my series on Bipolar Disorder. I hope this information was helpful to anyone who needed it. I will be doing more series as there is so much to cover on this topic. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

If you know someone who has bipolar disorder, it affects you too. The first and most important thing you can do is help him or her get the right diagnosis and treatment. You may need to make the appointment and go with him or her to see the doctor. Encourage your loved one to stay in treatment.

To help a friend or relative, you can:
* Offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement
* Learn about bipolar disorder so you can understand what your friend or relative is experiencing
* Talk to your friend or relative and listen carefully
* Listen to feelings your friend or relative expresses-be understanding about situations that may trigger bipolar symptoms
* Invite your friend or relative out for positive distractions, such as walks, outings, and other activities
* Remind your friend or relative that, with time and treatment, he or she can get better.
Never ignore comments about your friend or relative harming himself or herself. Always report such comments to his or her therapist or doctor.

Support for caregivers

Like other serious illnesses, bipolar disorder can be difficult for spouses, family members, friends, and other caregivers. Relatives and friends often have to cope with the person's serious behavioral problems, such as wild spending sprees during mania, extreme withdrawal during depression, poor work or school performance. These behaviors can have lasting consequences.

Caregivers usually take care of the medical needs of their loved ones. The caregivers have to deal with how this affects their own health. The stress that caregivers are under may lead to missed work or lost free time, strained relationships with people who may not understand the situation, and physical and mental exhaustion.

Stress from care giving can make it hard to cope with a loved one's bipolar symptoms. One study shows that if a caregiver is under a lot of stress, his or her loved one has more trouble following the treatment plan, which increases the chance for a major bipolar episode. It is important that people caring for those with bipolar disorder also take care of themselves. One way to get support for yourselves is to join a local support group. They are usually held at mental health facilities, or at a local hospital. You may find you can get respite help to allow yourself some time off, which will only lead to better mental health for both you and the loved on with the disorder.

Friday, November 27, 2009

NAMI Advocate E-newsletter, November 2009

Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I hope everyone had a nice Thanksgiving with your family and friends. I had a very nice day with my family and relatives. So thankful to have them. Today I want to share with you the NAMI Advocate E newsletter. It is filled with inspiring stories and updates on the Health Care Reform bill and how it pertains to coverage for the Mentally Ill. I love the book they put on their shelves for the month. I have included the link below to take you directly to the newsletter. Be back soon with more updates and articles. Thanks for visiting my blog. Take Care, Janet :)

NAMI Advocate
NAMI | Advocate Magazine

NAMI Advocate e-newsletter, November 2009

In this issue: Health Care Reform Legislation Advances in Congress; Voice Awards Honor Those Who Give Voice to Mental Illness Issues; NAMI Receives National LGBT Award; Actress Glenn Close is Changing Minds about Mental Illness and more... Read this issue online.
NAMI ADVOCATE e-Newsletter

Actress Glenn Close: Changing Minds about Mental Illness

Emmy award-winning actress Glenn Close has launched a campaign to fight stigma and provide access to information and support for people with mental illness, their family and friends.


Depression Survey
Depression: Gaps and Guideposts

A new major survey report released by NAMI reveals gaps in Americans' understanding of major depression and explores caregiver and individual experience.


Healthcare Reform
Health Care Reform Legislation Advances in Congress

The U.S. Senate began debate on legislation to reform our nation's health care system. The Senate bill contains a number of coverage expansions and improvements critical for people living with mental illness.

Voice Awards
Annual Voice Awards Honor Those Who Give Voice to Mental Illness Issues

Hollywood reaffirmed its commitment to combating stigma through the annual Voice Awards, which were hosted by Academy Award-winning actor Richard Dreyfuss.


MAC Award.
Fighting Stigma: NAMI Receives National LGBT Award.

NAMI's Multicultural Action Center received an award at the annual Alternatives Conference organized by the National Mental Health Consumers' Self-help Clearinghouse.


NAMI's Bookshelf

This month: Wrestling with Our Inner Angels: Faith, Mental Illness and the Journey to Wholeness.

Join NAMI today!
When you become a member of NAMI, you become part of America's largest grassroots organization dedicated to improving the lives of persons living with serious mental illness. And now you can join online.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

NIH Encourages Depressed Moms to Seek Treatment for Themselves

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Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I thought this was an important update from NAMI. When my mother first got sick, nobody knew what to think of the signs. Fortunately today there is more of an awareness. I still feel that women especially mom's and wives may still fear to talk out about their depression. They probably feel they are failing their families and themselves somehow. If you or someone you know suddenly changes their behavior and you sense something is wrong, talk to them. They may be waiting for you to reach out. You can always contact your local mental health center for assistance on how to approach the situation and find out what supports are in place in your community . Thanks for visiting my blog. Take Care, Janet :)

Science Update
November 13, 2009
NIH Encourages Depressed Moms to Seek Treatment for Themselves

Numerous studies have suggested that depression runs in families. Children of depressed parents are 2–3 times as likely to develop depression as compared to children who do not have a family history of the disorder. Other studies have shown that remission of depression in mothers is associated with improvements in psychiatric symptoms in their children. Despite all signs encouraging mothers to prioritize their own mental health, many suffer from untreated depression while managing treatment for their children's emotional or behavioral problems.

An NIH Challenge grant was awarded on behalf of NIMH to Judy Garber, Ph.D., of Vanderbilt University, to develop and test a method encouraging depressed mothers to follow treatment recommendations. For this study, Garber is recruiting 200 mothers of children receiving psychiatric treatment at a community mental health center.

All study participants will receive a referral for treatment and an information pamphlet describing the symptoms of depression and anxiety, possible effects of depression on children, and different types of treatments. Randomly assigned participants will also receive a brief, one-session Enhanced Motivation Intervention (EMI). EMI uses special interviewing techniques to identify and resolve a person's concerns about and practical barriers to treatment.

The researchers anticipate that EMI will result in more participants getting treatment for mental disorders compared with the control group. If successful, such interventions would not only benefit the depressed individual, but may improve the well-being of her children as well.

The NIH Challenge Grants in Health and Science Research program is a new initiative funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). This program supports research on 15 broad Challenge Areas that address specific scientific and health research challenges in biomedical and behavioral research that will benefit from an influx of significant two-year funds to quickly advance the area.

Within these Challenge Areas, NIMH identified 35 topics of particular funding interest that advance the Institute's mission and the objectives outlined in the NIMH Strategic Plan, the Trans-NIH Plan for HIV-Related Research, and the National Advisory Mental Health Council report on research training. These topics can be found at NIMH's Challenge Grant web page.

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

Thursday, November 12, 2009

Coping with Traumatic Events

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Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I thought I would post this list of resources for anyone or any family that is coping with a traumatic event in their lives right now. After recent events in Texas it made me realize no matter how close or far away we are traumatize by violence more than we would like to be. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

The National Institute of Mental Health conducts and supports research not only on a wide range of mental health disorders, but also on reactions to national crises and traumatic events. This research includes the reactions of people following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers; the Oklahoma City bombing; wars and violence in the Middle East; and disasters such as earthquakes, tornados, fires, floods, and hurricanes, including the 2005 Gulf Coast storms.

There are many different responses to crisis. Most survivors have intense feelings after a traumatic event but recover from the trauma; others have more difficulty recovering — especially those who have had previous traumatic experiences, who are faced with ongoing stress, or who lack support from friends and family — and will need additional help.

The NIMH provides information based on scientific research and evidence-based practice. We have compiled this information to assist you, your family, and friends. We have special information for helping children that many parents and organizations have found useful.
Mental Disorders That May Be Related to or Affected by Exposure to Violence or Traumatic Events

* Anxiety Disorders
* Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
* Depression

NIMH Publications and Reports

* Mapping the Landscape of Deployment Related Adjustment and Mental Disorders: A Working Group to Inform Research (PDF file, 22 pages)
* Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), A Real Illness
* Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Fact Sheet
* Depression: When the Blues Don't Go Away
* Panic Disorder, A Real Illness
* Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters: What Parents Can Do
* Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters: What Community Members Can Do
* Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters: What Rescue Workers Can Do
* Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims/Survivors of Mass Violence (PDF file, 123 pages)

Resources

* Information about Children and Violence
* U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Hurricane Information
* Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS)

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/coping-with-traumatic-events/index.shtml

Friday, November 6, 2009

Does God Have a Place in Psychiatric Treatment Plans?

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Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well, I am doing much better, I got a bug this week along with a UTI, I know all my lady readers know how painful that is. I could barely get off the couch until today. I received a newsletter from NAMI Faithnet in a email today. This part of the newsletter touched me and I wanted to share it with you. I included a link at the bottom of this post to link you to the newsletter if you wanted to check it out. There are some good stories that are touching and maybe will inspire you. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

One's identity is unraveled by psychiatric diagnosis and often, so too is faith.

In 1992, my father drove (more like sped) me to the emergency of Lion's Gate Hospital. I was floridly psychotic. I ran from one end of the parkade to the other, shouting ‘I am one with God'. Neither of us knew what was happening. My dad describes it as one of the most terrifying experiences of his life, for me one of the most devastating yet liberating.

My diagnosis: rapid-cycling, mixed stated bipolar disorder with mild temporal lobe epilepsy and generalized anxiety disorder. Yeah, say that five times fast!

Over the next five years I had four further psychotic episodes, innumerable manias and suicidal depressions and five visits to the psych ward.

Related Articles
* Religious People Aren't as Scientifically Naive as We Think
* I Am One, You Are One, We Are Altogether One...
* (How to) "Be the Change You Wish to See in the World"
* Sport and Spirituality: Part IV
* Cutting through Spiritual Materialism

I feel lucky, for the most part I had incredible health care providers - from the psychiatrist I saw weekly, to the nurses and orderlies who helped me regroup in the hospital to the case worker I met with.

My treatment was fairly straightforward: medication, psychotherapy, group work, occupational therapy and vocational rehab. Accepting the diagnosis and treatment however, was a whole other bucket of fish.

And unfortunately the one discharge plan element, which could have helped me accept treatment more readily, was overlooked. My spiritual beliefs were not only ignored, but more accurately actively avoided. To some degree it was understandable. My psychosis involved images of God, the devil, allusions to birth and death and an intense focus on the nature of reality. Care providers were reluctant to discuss spiritual topics for fear of destabilizing my mood.

But this was a most heartfelt dilemma and conflict I needed to reconcile in order to start the healing process. I originally shot into psychosis while meditating deeply and within that altered state had my most profound spiritual experiences; ones that I still hold dear and affect how I am in the world today.

This doesn't mean all things that happened in the psychosis were significant or even remotely relevant. But my health care team only saw the psychoses as negative, never exploring with me what happened during them or what parts, if any, felt meaningful to me and why.

Because facets of my psychoses felt life changing, I was at odds with the medical profession. How could I label something of such significance as only pathological?

This is one of the most important points I wish to convey. I refused treatment and remained ‘non-compliant' largely because no one told me these two things were not mutually exclusive.

It was not until years after my initial diagnosis and visit to ‘Club Medication' that I met an exquisitely talented psychiatrist who helped me hold an apparent paradox. He explained what I went through could be spiritual as well as psychiatric, each profoundly affecting my life.

I can't emphasize this enough: if someone within the healthcare system had taken me aside earlier, told me that just because I have a mental illness doesn't negate the importance of what I experienced, I can guarantee I would have had less visits to the psych ward.

Ideally a doctor or nurse would have acknowledged the spiritual meaning and shifts I felt I had in the psychoses, asking what they were, how they were positive and why they were important to me. And explaining to me I would be able to look at them more closely when I my illness had stabilized.

Dialogues like these would have given me much needed validation, helping me see I could accept having a mental illness without abandoning my new life perspectives and realize the illness needed to be stabilized for me to effectively and safely integrate these insights and experiences.

Eventually my psychiatrist and I agreed we'd meet to monitor my medication and for psychotherapy sessions (often CBT with interpersonal therapy) and I would also meet with a spiritual counselor who could help me put the spiritual aspects I experienced into context. This created a beautifully effective blend of very traditional psychiatry and counseling with gentle yet very vital spiritual exploration.

When a discharge plan is being drafted for you, get involved. Say your piece. Or ‘peace' as it were. Don't underestimate your own power in the building of a rehab plan. And if it is important to you, make room for your spiritual life. Self-identity is unraveled by psychiatric diagnosis and so too is faith, a sense of order and place in the world.

A ‘spiritual action plan' is a map to help affirm purpose from something that appears to have none and establishes, for us as patients, reasons to recover; reasons to continue even while the going gets tough.

My trust in reality, in myself and in the Divine was deeply wounded when I was thrust through those emergency doors. Mental illness and in particular, psychosis, shakes the strongest of faiths. Whether that faith is religious in nature, or as in my case, a ‘life perspective', in order for the whole person to heal, spirituality must be addressed.

Without indulging my irrational thinking nor dismissing ideas I valued, a gifted nurse helped me start accepting treatment. I sat on the edge of my hospital bed, despondent and unclear as to how to reconcile accepting that I had a mental illness without abandoning my spiritual insights by calling them delusional. The nurse, who had been on shifts throughout my four weeks on A2, sat beside me, listening as I explained what had brought me there. Silence. And then with quiet confidence she said: ‘when you touch that limitless part of yourself, it can be overwhelming.' That's all I needed to know: someone in the medical field had heard how powerful and not completely negative my journey with bipolar disorder and psychosis had been.

I then realized that perhaps I could find others in healthcare who shared her same caring and inclusive view. I enlisted her help and she gave me the name of the psychiatrist who I credit with coaching me back to health.

© 2009 Victoria Maxwell

http://www.nami.org/namifaithnet

Friday, October 30, 2009

Bipolar Disorder 5

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Hi Everyone, I hope your doing well. I am doing good. I have gotten a little behind on my blogging this week, but I am getting back on track. This week here in Boston there was an attack on a Doctor by her psychiatric patient. Well because it was someone with a mental illness it made big news. On my local news channel they had to call in a Doctor to discuss what Bipolar disorder is. Once again they don't get it. They talked about the disease but failed to mention that all murders are committed by only 5 percent of the mentally ill. Leaving the other 95 percent of murders committed by so called "normal people". I gets me so frustrated sometimes. So to end the Stigma I will fight on. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

Bipolar disorder has no cure, but can be effectively treated over the long-term. It is best controlled when treatment is continuous, rather than on and off. In the STEP-BD study, a little more than half of the people treated for bipolar disorder recovered over one year's time. For this study, recovery meant having two or fewer symptoms of the disorder for at least eight weeks.

However, even with proper treatment, mood changes can occur. In the STEP-BD study, almost half of those who recovered still had lingering symptoms. These people experienced a relapse or recurrence that was usually a return to a depressive state.49 If a person had a mental illness in addition to bipolar disorder, he or she was more likely to experience a relapse.49 Scientists are unsure, however, how these other illnesses or lingering symptoms increase the chance of relapse. For some people, combining psychotherapy with medication may help to prevent or delay relapse.42

Treatment may be more effective when people work closely with a doctor and talk openly about their concerns and choices. Keeping track of mood changes and symptoms with a daily life chart can help a doctor assess a person's response to treatments. Sometimes the doctor needs to change a treatment plan to make sure symptoms are controlled most effectively. A psychiatrist should guide any changes in type or dose of medication.

Saturday, October 24, 2009

Life Lessons

Divine Light Pictures, Images and Photos

Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I was introduced to this columnist Regina Brett through my friend Kim. You should take the time to visit Kim's blog, you will always be inspired. http://www.kimmysharinglight.com/. I liked this post so I thought I would share it with all of you. I think her words are so true, we simply need to remember to love life everyday. Hope you are having a good weekend. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

To celebrate growing older, I once wrote the 45 lessons life taught me.

It is the most-requested column I've ever written. My odometer rolls over to 50 this week, so here's an update:

1. Life isn't fair, but it's still good.

2. When in doubt, just take the next small step.

3. Life is too short to waste time hating anyone.

4. Don't take yourself so seriously. No one else does.

5. Pay off your credit cards every month.

6. You don't have to win every argument. Agree to disagree.

7. Cry with someone. It's more healing than crying alone.

8. It's OK to get angry with God. He can take it.

9. Save for retirement starting with your first paycheck.

10. When it comes to chocolate, resistance is futile.

11. Make peace with your past so it won't screw up the present.

12. It's OK to let your children see you cry.

13. Don't compare your life to others'. You have no idea what their journey is all about.

14. If a relationship has to be a secret, you shouldn't be in it.

15. Everything can change in the blink of an eye. But don't worry; God never blinks.

16. Life is too short for long pity parties. Get busy living, or get busy dying.

17. You can get through anything if you stay put in today.

18. A writer writes. If you want to be a writer, write.

19. It's never too late to have a happy childhood. But the second one is up to you and no one else.

20. When it comes to going after what you love in life, don't take no for an answer.

21. Burn the candles, use the nice sheets, wear the fancy lingerie. Don't save it for a special occasion. Today is special.

22. Overprepare, then go with the flow.

23. Be eccentric now. Don't wait for old age to wear purple.

24. The most important sex organ is the brain.

25. No one is in charge of your happiness except you.

26. Frame every so-called disaster with these words: "In five years, will this matter?"

27. Always choose life.

28. Forgive everyone everything.

29. What other people think of you is none of your business.

30. Time heals almost everything. Give time time.

31. However good or bad a situation is, it will change.

32. Your job won't take care of you when you are sick. Your friends will. Stay in touch.

33. Believe in miracles.

34. God loves you because of who God is, not because of anything you did or didn't do.

35. Whatever doesn't kill you really does make you stronger.

36. Growing old beats the alternative - dying young.

37. Your children get only one childhood. Make it memorable.

38. Read the Psalms. They cover every human emotion.

39. Get outside every day. Miracles are waiting everywhere.

40. If we all threw our problems in a pile and saw everyone else's, we'd grab ours back.

41. Don't audit life. Show up and make the most of it now.

42. Get rid of anything that isn't useful, beautiful or joyful.

43. All that truly matters in the end is that you loved.

44. Envy is a waste of time. You already have all you need.

45. The best is yet to come.

46. No matter how you feel, get up, dress up and show up.

47. Take a deep breath. It calms the mind.

48. If you don't ask, you don't get.

49. Yield.

50. Life isn't tied with a bow, but it's still a gift.

Thursday, October 22, 2009

NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness Stigma Alerts Archive

Hi Everyone, I hope your doing well. I am doing good. I recieved this in an email today and wanted to share it with you. Hope you will help by taking a stand against stigma. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

NAMI StigmaBuster Alert: October 22, 2009


Halloween Horrors
It's trick or treat time again. We don't mind ghosts and goblins, but when "haunted house" attractions become "insane asylums," featuring "mental patients" as murderous ghouls, we protest.

Violent stereotypes are inaccurate and offensive and the U.S. Surgeon General has determined that stigma is a major barrier to people getting help when they need it. Help send the message!

Local Attractions
Here's an example. NAMI New Jersey is fighting an "Asylum of Terror" sponsored by a local museum and supported by a local Walmart and Dunkin' Donuts, to name a few. Please e-mail the museum to let them know that perpetuating stigma towards persons with a mental illness is a national — as well as local — concern.

In Your Own Communities:
If offensive Halloween attractions or products appear, contact sponsors, advertisers or sellers personally. Educate them. Ask them to remove offensive parts of any attraction, advertisements or merchandise that mock mental illness.
If dialogue fails, alert NAMI members, family and friends to phone, send letters or e-mail the sponsors or stores.
Contact local newspaper editors and television news directors. Educate them about stigma and your concerns. Make the protest a "news event" and a "teaching moment." Offer consumers and family members for personal interviews.

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Cell Block Psycho
StigmaBusters report that Walmart stores are selling a "Cell Block Psycho" adult costume that is also sold online by other companies. The site also offers "psycho" costumes that include straitjackets and shackles.

These are only the tip of iceberg, but let's educate those we can.

For Wal-Mart
Mike Duke, CEO
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
702 SW 8th Street
Bentonville, AR 72716-8611
(479) 273-4000

Send a message also through Customer Service ("Other Comments & Questions").

For BuyCostumes.com
Jalem Getz, CEO
BuyCostumes, Inc.
5915 S. Moorland Rd.
New Berlin, WI 53151
(262) 901-2000
(262) 901-3100 (fax)

Complaints also can be sent through the company's Web site or its toll free service line: (800) 459-2969.


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Victory!
Thank you to all StigmaBusters who contacted New Monic Books after last month's alert about the inappropriate vocabulary example in an SAT preparation book.

The company listened and is removing the example from the next edition of the book, which will be published soon.

We thank them.


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Out of the Inbox
Because of the large number of StigmaBuster messages received, they cannot all be answered individually; however, we appreciate every e-mail and do review every stigma report and prioritize them for action.

We also appreciate receiving copies of responses. They are important in helping to coordinate strategy and pursue genuine dialogue. You are our eyes and ears! Your help makes a difference!

Please send reports of stigma to Stella March.

NAMI StigmaBuster Alerts are electronic newsletters provided free of charge as a public service. NAMI is the largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to improving the lives of individuals and families affected by mental illness.

National Alliance on Mental Illness
3803 N. Fairfax Dr. ~ Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness | Stigma Alerts Archive

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Glenn Close and her Sister Speaks Out on Mental Illness

Hi Everyone,
I am so excited to see a celebrity use their fame to help the Mentally Ill. A new day is dawning I feel to end the stigma. Please share your story at
http://www.bringchange2mind.org/.
Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

Saturday, October 17, 2009

Bipolar Disorder 4


Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well, I am doing good. I have gotten away from my posts about Bipolar Disorder. So today I wanted to continue with treatments for the disorder. I am sure this is what my mother had because Lithium worked well for her. I hope this information helps anyone who needs it. Thanks for visiting my blog,Take Care, Janet :)

To date, there is no cure for bipolar disorder. But proper treatment helps most people with bipolar disorder gain better control of their mood swings and related symptoms. This is also true for people with the most severe forms of the illness.

Because bipolar disorder is a lifelong and recurrent illness, people with the disorder need long-term treatment to maintain control of bipolar symptoms. An effective maintenance treatment plan includes medication and psychotherapy for preventing relapse and reducing symptom severity.
Medications

Bipolar disorder can be diagnosed and medications prescribed by people with an M.D. (doctor of medicine). Usually, bipolar medications are prescribed by a psychiatrist. In some states, clinical psychologists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and advanced psychiatric nurse specialists can also prescribe medications. Check with your state's licensing agency to find out more.

Not everyone responds to medications in the same way. Several different medications may need to be tried before the best course of treatment is found.

Keeping a chart of daily mood symptoms, treatments, sleep patterns, and life events can help the doctor track and treat the illness most effectively. Sometimes this is called a daily life chart. If a person's symptoms change or if side effects become serious, the doctor may switch or add medications.

Some of the types of medications generally used to treat bipolar disorder are listed on the next page. Information on medications can change. For the most up to date information on use and side effects contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
1. Mood stabilizing medications are usually the first choice to treat bipolar disorder. In general, people with bipolar disorder continue treatment with mood stabilizers for years. Except for lithium, many of these medications are anticonvulsants. Anticonvulsant medications are usually used to treat seizures, but they also help control moods. These medications are commonly used as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder:
* Lithium (sometimes known as Eskalith or Lithobid) was the first mood-stabilizing medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1970s for treatment of mania. It is often very effective in controlling symptoms of mania and preventing the recurrence of manic and depressive episodes.
* Valproic acid or divalproex sodium (Depakote), approved by the FDA in 1995 for treating mania, is a popular alternative to lithium for bipolar disorder. It is generally as effective as lithium for treating bipolar disorder. Also see the section in this booklet, "Should young women take valproic acid?"
* More recently, the anticonvulsant lamotrigine (Lamictal) received FDA approval for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder.
* Other anticonvulsant medications, including gabapentin (Neurontin), topiramate (Topamax), and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) are sometimes prescribed. No large studies have shown that these medications are more effective than mood stabilizers.

Valproic acid, lamotrigine, and other anticonvulsant medications have an FDA warning. The warning states that their use may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. People taking anticonvulsant medications for bipolar or other illnesses should be closely monitored for new or worsening symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. People taking these medications should not make any changes without talking to their health care professional.

Lithium and Thyroid Function
People with bipolar disorder often have thyroid gland problems. Lithium treatment may also cause low thyroid levels in some people. Low thyroid function, called hypothyroidism, has been associated with rapid cycling in some people with bipolar disorder, especially women. Because too much or too little thyroid hormone can lead to mood and energy changes, it is important to have a doctor check thyroid levels carefully. A person with bipolar disorder may need to take thyroid medication, in addition to medications for bipolar disorder, to keep thyroid levels balanced.

Should young women take valproic acid?
Valproic acid may increase levels of testosterone (a male hormone) in teenage girls and lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women who begin taking the medication before age 20. PCOS causes a woman's eggs to develop into cysts, or fluid filled sacs that collect in the ovaries instead of being released by monthly periods. This condition can cause obesity, excess body hair, disruptions in the menstrual cycle, and other serious symptoms. Most of these symptoms will improve after stopping treatment with valproic acid. Young girls and women taking valproic acid should be monitored carefully by a doctor.
2. Atypical antipsychotic medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar disorder. Often, these medications are taken with other medications. Atypical antipsychotic medications are called "atypical" to set them apart from earlier medications, which are called "conventional" or "first-generation" antipsychotics.
* Olanzapine (Zyprexa), when given with an antidepressant medication, may help relieve symptoms of severe mania or psychosis. Olanzapine is also available in an injectable form, which quickly treats agitation associated with a manic or mixed episode. Olanzapine can be used for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder as well, even when a person does not have psychotic symptoms. However, some studies show that people taking olanzapine may gain weight and have other side effects that can increase their risk for diabetes and heart disease. These side effects are more likely in people taking olanzapine when compared with people prescribed other atypical antipsychotics.
* Aripiprazole (Abilify), like olanzapine, is approved for treatment of a manic or mixed episode. Aripiprazole is also used for maintenance treatment after a severe or sudden episode. As with olanzapine, aripiprazole also can be injected for urgent treatment of symptoms of manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder.
* Quetiapine (Seroquel) relieves the symptoms of severe and sudden manic episodes. In that way, quetiapine is like almost all antipsychotics. In 2006, it became the first atypical antipsychotic to also receive FDA approval for the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes.
* Risperidone (Risperdal) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are other atypical antipsychotics that may also be prescribed for controlling manic or mixed episodes.
3. Antidepressant medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder who take antidepressants often take a mood stabilizer too. Doctors usually require this because taking only an antidepressant can increase a person's risk of switching to mania or hypomania, or of developing rapid cycling symptoms. To prevent this switch, doctors who prescribe antidepressants for treating bipolar disorder also usually require the person to take a mood-stabilizing medication at the same time.
Recently, a large-scale, NIMH-funded study showed that for many people, adding an antidepressant to a mood stabilizer is no more effective in treating the depression than using only a mood stabilizer.
* Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), and bupropion (Wellbutrin) are examples of antidepressants that may be prescribed to treat symptoms of bipolar depression.Some medications are better at treating one type of bipolar symptoms than another. For example, lamotrigine (Lamictal) seems to be helpful in controlling depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder.

What are the side effects of these medications?
Before starting a new medication, people with bipolar disorder should talk to their doctor about the possible risks and benefits. The psychiatrist prescribing the medication or pharmacist can also answer questions about side effects. Over the last decade, treatments have improved, and some medications now have fewer or more tolerable side effects than earlier treatments. However, everyone responds differently to medications. In some cases, side effects may not appear until a person has taken a medication for some time. If the person with bipolar disorder develops any severe side effects from a medication, he or she should talk to the doctor who prescribed it as soon as possible. The doctor may change the dose or prescribe a different medication. People being treated for bipolar disorder should not stop taking a medication without talking to a doctor first. Suddenly stopping a medication may lead to "rebound," or worsening of bipolar disorder symptoms. Other uncomfortable or potentially dangerous withdrawal effects are also possible.

FDA Warning on Antidepressants
Antidepressants are safe and popular, but some studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects on some people, especially in adolescents and young adults. The FDA warning says that patients of all ages taking antidepressants should be watched closely, especially during the first few weeks of treatment. Possible side effects to look for are depression that gets worse, suicidal thinking or behavior, or any unusual changes in behavior such as trouble sleeping, agitation, or withdrawal from normal social situations. Families and caregivers should report any changes to the doctor. For the latest information visit the FDA website.
The following sections describe some common side effects of the different types of medications used to treat bipolar disorder.

1. Mood Stabilizers
In some cases, lithium can cause side effects such as:
* Restlessness
* Dry mouth
* Bloating or indigestion
* Acne
* Unusual discomfort to cold temperatures
* Joint or muscle pain
* Brittle nails or hair.
Lithium also causes side effects not listed here. If extremely bothersome or unusual side effects occur, tell your doctor as soon as possible. If a person with bipolar disorder is being treated with lithium, it is important to make regular visits to the treating doctor. The doctor needs to check the levels of lithium in the person's blood, as well as kidney and thyroid function. These medications may also be linked with rare but serious side effects. Talk with the treating doctor or a pharmacist to make sure you understand signs of serious side effects for the medications you're taking.
Common side effects of other mood stabilizing medications include:
* Drowsiness
* Dizziness
* Headache
* Diarrhea
* Constipation
* Heartburn
* Mood swings
* Stuffed or runny nose, or other cold-like symptoms.32-37

2. Atypical Antipsychotics
Some people have side effects when they start taking atypical antipsychotics. Most side effects go away after a few days and often can be managed successfully. People who are taking antipsychotics should not drive until they adjust to their new medication. Side effects of many antipsychotics include:
* Drowsiness
* Dizziness when changing positions
* Blurred vision
* Rapid heartbeat
* Sensitivity to the sun
* Skin rashes
* Menstrual problems for women.

Atypical antipsychotic medications can cause major weight gain and changes in a person's metabolism. This may increase a person's risk of getting diabetes and high cholesterol.38 A person's weight, glucose levels, and lipid levels should be monitored regularly by a doctor while taking these medications. In rare cases, long-term use of atypical antipsychotic drugs may lead to a condition called tardive dyskinesia (TD). The condition causes muscle movements that commonly occur around the mouth. A person with TD cannot control these moments. TD can range from mild to severe, and it cannot always be cured. Some people with TD recover partially or fully after they stop taking the drug.

3. Antidepressants
The antidepressants most commonly prescribed for treating symptoms of bipolar disorder can also cause mild side effects that usually do not last long. These can include:
* Headache, which usually goes away within a few days.
* Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach), which usually goes away within a few days.
* Sleep problems, such as sleeplessness or drowsiness. This may happen during the first few weeks but then go away. To help lessen these effects, sometimes the medication dose can be reduced, or the time of day it is taken can be changed.
* Agitation (feeling jittery).
* Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women. These include reduced sex drive and problems having and enjoying sex. Some antidepressants are more likely to cause certain side effects than other types. Your doctor or pharmacist can answer questions about these medications. Any unusual reactions or side effects should be reported to a doctor immediately.For the most up-to-date information on medications for treating bipolar disorder and their side effects, please see the online NIMH Medications booklet.
Should women who are pregnant or may become pregnant take medication for bipolar disorder?
Women with bipolar disorder who are pregnant or may become pregnant face special challenges. The mood stabilizing medications in use today can harm a developing fetus or nursing infant. But stopping medications, either suddenly or gradually, greatly increases the risk that bipolar symptoms will recur during pregnancy. Scientists are not sure yet, but lithium is likely the preferred mood-stabilizing medication for pregnant women with bipolar disorder. However, lithium can lead to heart problems in the fetus. Women need to know that most bipolar medications are passed on through breast milk. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should talk to their doctors about the benefits and risks of all available treatments.

Psychotherapy
In addition to medication, psychotherapy, or "talk" therapy, can be an effective treatment for bipolar disorder. It can provide support, education, and guidance to people with bipolar disorder and their families. Some psychotherapy treatments used to treat bipolar disorder include:
1. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps people with bipolar disorder learn to change harmful or negative thought patterns and behaviors.
2. Family-focused therapy includes family members. It helps enhance family coping strategies, such as recognizing new episodes early and helping their loved one. This therapy also improves communication and problem-solving.
3. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy helps people with bipolar disorder improve their relationships with others and manage their daily routines. Regular daily routines and sleep schedules may help protect against manic episodes.
4. Psychoeducation teaches people with bipolar disorder about the illness and its treatment. This treatment helps people recognize signs of relapse so they can seek treatment early, before a full-blown episode occurs. Usually done in a group, psychoeducation may also be helpful for family members and caregivers. A licensed psychologist, social worker, or counselor typically provides these therapies. This mental health professional often works with the psychiatrist to track progress. The number, frequency, and type of sessions should be based on the treatment needs of each person. As with medication, following the doctor's instructions for any psychotherapy will provide the greatest benefit.For more information, see the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration web page on choosing a mental health therapist. Recently, NIMH funded a clinical trial called the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). This was the largest treatment study ever conducted for bipolar disorder. In a study on psychotherapies, STEP-BD researchers compared people in two groups. The first group was treated with collaborative care (three sessions of psychoeducation over six weeks). The second group was treated with medication and intensive psychotherapy (30 sessions over nine months of CBT, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or family-focused therapy). Researchers found that the second group had fewer relapses, lower hospitalization rates, and were better able to stick with their treatment plans. They were also more likely to get well faster and stay well longer.

NIMH is supporting more research on which combinations of psychotherapy and medication work best. The goal is to help people with bipolar disorder live symptom-free for longer periods and to recover from episodes more quickly. Researchers also hope to determine whether psychotherapy helps delay the start of bipolar disorder in children at high risk for the illness.

Visit the NIMH Web site for more information on psychotherapy.
Other treatments
1. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)—For cases in which medication and/or psychotherapy does not work, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be useful. ECT, formerly known as "shock therapy," once had a bad reputation. But in recent years, it has greatly improved and can provide relief for people with severe bipolar disorder who have not been able to feel better with other treatments.
Before ECT is administered, a patient takes a muscle relaxant and is put under brief anesthesia. He or she does not consciously feel the electrical impulse administered in ECT. On average, ECT treatments last from 30–90 seconds. People who have ECT usually recover after 5–15 minutes and are able to go home the same day.
Sometimes ECT is used for bipolar symptoms when other medical conditions, including pregnancy, make the use of medications too risky. ECT is a highly effective treatment for severely depressive, manic, or mixed episodes, but is generally not a first-line treatment.
ECT may cause some short-term side effects, including confusion, disorientation, and memory loss. But these side effects typically clear soon after treatment. People with bipolar disorder should discuss possible benefits and risks of ECT with an experienced doctor.
2. Sleep Medications—People with bipolar disorder who have trouble sleeping usually sleep better after getting treatment for bipolar disorder. However, if sleeplessness does not improve, the doctor may suggest a change in medications. If the problems still continue, the doctor may prescribe sedatives or other sleep medications. People with bipolar disorder should tell their doctor about all prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, or supplements they are taking. Certain medications and supplements taken together may cause unwanted or dangerous effects.

Herbal Supplements
In general, there is not much research about herbal or natural supplements. Little is known about their effects on bipolar disorder. An herb called St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), often marketed as a natural antidepressant, may cause a switch to mania in some people with bipolar disorder. St. John's wort can also make other medications less effective, including some antidepressant and anticonvulsant medications. Scientists are also researching omega-3 fatty acids (most commonly found in fish oil) to measure their usefulness for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. Study results have been mixed.48 It is important to talk with a doctor before taking any herbal or natural supplements because of the serious risk of interactions with other medications.

This page last reviewed: September 17, 2009

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Brain Emotion Circuit Sparks as Teen Girls Size Up Peers

Hi Everyone,
I hope you are all doing well. I am doing good. I thought this information might be helpful if any of you have a teenage daughter. I remember being in the 7th grade and feeling not part of a group of friends, that may have added my anxiety disorder. Thank God for modern medicine, that is all I can say! Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)


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What is going on in teenagers' brains as their drive for peer approval begins to eclipse their family affiliations? Brain scans of teens sizing each other up reveal an emotion circuit activating more in girls as they grow older, but not in boys. The study by Daniel Pine, M.D., of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of National Institutes of Health, and colleagues, shows how emotion circuitry diverges in the male and female brain during a developmental stage in which girls are at increased risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders.

"During this time of heightened sensitivity to interpersonal stress and peers' perceptions, girls are becoming increasingly preoccupied with how individual peers view them, while boys tend to become more focused on their status within group pecking orders," explained Pine. "However, in the study, the prospect of interacting with peers activated brain circuitry involved in approaching others, rather than circuitry responsible for withdrawal and fear, which is associated with anxiety and depression."

Pine, Amanda Guyer, Ph.D., Eric Nelson, Ph.D., and colleagues at NIMH and Georgia State University, report on one of the first studies to reveal the workings of the teen brain in a simulated real-world social interaction, in the July, 2009 issue of the Journal Child Development.

Thirty-four psychiatrically healthy males and females, aged 9 to 17, were ostensibly participating in a study of teenagers' communications via Internet chat rooms. They were told that after an fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) scan, which visualizes brain activity, they would chat online with another teen from a collaborating study site. Each participant was asked to rate his or her interest in communicating with each of 40 teens presented on a computer screen, so they could be matched with a high interest participant (see picture below).

Two weeks later, the teens viewed the same faces while in an fMRI scanner. But this time they were asked to instead rate how interested they surmised each of the other prospective chatters would be in interacting with them.

Only after they exited the scanner did they learn that, in fact, the faces were of actors, not study participants, and that there would be no Internet chat. The scenario was intended to keep the teens engaged –– maintain a high level of anticipation/motivation –– during the tasks. This helped to ensure that the scanner would detect contrasts in brain circuit responses to high interest versus low interest peers.

Although the faces were selected by the researchers for their happy expressions, their attractiveness was random, so that they appeared to be a mix of typical peers encountered by teens.

As expected, the teen participants deemed the same faces they initially chose as high interest to be the peers most interested in interacting with them. Older participants tended to choose more faces of the opposite sex than younger ones. When they appraised anticipated interest from peers of high interest compared with low interest, older females showed more brain activity than younger females in circuitry that processes social emotion.

"This developmental shift suggested a change in socio-emotional calculus from avoidance to approach," noted Pine. The circuit is made up of the nucleus accumbens (reward and motivation), hypothalamus (hormonal activation), hippocampus (social memory) and insula (visceral/subjective feelings).

By contrast, males showed little change in the activity of most of these circuit areas with age, except for a decrease in activation of the insula. This may reflect a waning of interpersonal emotional ties over time in teenage males, as they shift their interest to groups, suggest Pine and colleagues.

"In females, absence of activation in areas associated with mood and anxiety disorders, such as the amygdala, suggests that emotional responses to peers may be driven more by a brain network related to approach than to one related to fear and withdrawal," said Pine. "This reflects resilience to psychosocial stress among healthy female adolescents during this vulnerable period."


Brain areas activated in approach circuit

Nodes of a brain circuit for social emotion and approach behavior activated more in teenage girls than in boys with age. Functional MRI data (red) superimposed on anatomical MRI images.

Source: NIMH Emotion and Development Branch
teens rated interest in peers.
Teenage participants were first asked to rate their interest in peers with whom they might communicate in an internet chat room (left). Two weeks later, while in a brain scanner, they were asked to rate how interested the same peers were in interacting with them (right).

Source: NIMH Emotion and Development Branch
Reference
Probing the neural correlates of anticipated peer evaluation in adolescence. Guyer AE, McClure-Tone EB, Shiffrin ND, Pine DS, Nelson EE. July 2009, Child Development.

Saturday, October 10, 2009

PTSD Treatment Efforts for Returning War Veterans

the eye Pictures, Images and Photos

Hi Everyone,
I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I was happy to read this update to help our veterans. They need all the support they can get when they return. If you know a veteran who needs help they may be able to get this therapy at a local mental health facility. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

Science Update
September 30, 2009

PTSD Treatment Efforts for Returning War Veterans to be Evaluated
man and woman in individual therapy

Joan Cook, Ph.D., of Yale University and colleagues have been awarded funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to evaluate the implementation of two evidence-based psychotherapies for treating post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans. The grant addresses the NIH Challenge Grant topic "Strategies to Support Uptake of Interventions within Clinical Community and Settings."

Strategies for promoting evidence-based PTSD treatments in the military are urgently needed as more and more soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan struggle with this disorder. The research team will characterize and assess the implementation of two types of therapy—prolonged exposure (PE) therapy and cognitive processing therapy (CPT)—within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential PTSD treatment programs. PE involves helping people confront their fear and feelings about the trauma they experienced in a safe way through mental imagery, writing, or other ways. In CPT, the patient is asked to recount his or her traumatic experience, and a therapist helps the patient redirect inaccurate or destructive thoughts about the experience.

Dr. Cook and colleagues will partner with the Northeast Program Evaluation Center, which monitors all VA mental health programming and patient outcomes, and the National Center for PTSD, which oversees the dissemination of PE and CPT nationally among VA providers. They plan to monitor and assess the efforts of more than 250 mental health providers in residential PTSD treatment settings via online questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and on-site observations.

The researchers note that the project may help improve the dissemination of other evidence-based treatments in federally-funded mental health systems.

The NIH Challenge Grants in Health and Science Research program is a new initiative funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). This program will support research on 15 broad Challenge Areas that address specific scientific and health research challenges in biomedical and behavioral research that would benefit from an influx of significant two-year funds to quickly advance the area.

Within these Challenge Areas, NIMH has identified 35 topics of particular funding interest that will advance the Institute's mission and the objectives outlined in the NIMH Strategic Plan, the Trans-NIH Plan for HIV-Related Research, and the National Advisory Mental Health Council report on research training. These topics can be found at NIMH's Challenge Grant web page.

Monday, October 5, 2009

New Approach to Reducing Suicide Attempts Among Depressed Teens

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Science Update
September 29, 2009

Hi Everyone, I hope you are doing well. I am doing great. Our week in Aruba was beautiful. I felt this update was important to post about. I remember during my teen years I did lose a few friends to suicide. At the time I was still naive about mental illness even though I was living with it. As a grew I realized my friends were suffering from a mental illness as well. I felt sad that there was no recognition of this disorder in teenager back then. Today I am glad to see that more and more teenagers are getting treatment but I am glad that they are still working in ways to prevent the attempts in the first place. Thanks for visiting my blog, Take Care, Janet :)

A novel treatment approach that includes medication plus a newly developed type of psychotherapy that targets suicidal thinking and behavior shows promise in treating depressed adolescents who had recently attempted suicide, according to a treatment development and pilot study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The study, described in three articles, was published in the October 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Background
Youth who attempt suicide are particularly difficult to treat because they often leave treatment prematurely, and no specific interventions exist that reliably reduce suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality). In addition, these teens often are excluded from clinical trials testing depression treatments. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA) was developed to address this need and identify factors that may predict and mediate suicide reattempts among this vulnerable population. A novel psychotherapy used in the study—cognitive behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP—was developed to address the need for a specific psychotherapy that would prevent or reduce the risk for suicide reattempts among teens. CBT-SP consisted of a 12-week acute treatment phase focusing on safety planning, understanding the circumstances and vulnerabilities that lead to suicidal behavior, and building life skills to prevent a reattempt. A maintenance continuation phase followed the acute phase.

In the six-month, multisite pilot study, 124 adolescents who had recently attempted suicide were either randomized to or given the option of choosing one of three interventions—antidepressant medication only, CBT-SP only, or a combination of the two. Most participants preferred to choose their intervention, and most (93) chose combination therapy. Participants were assessed for suicidality at weeks six, 12, 18 and 24.

Results of the Study
During the six-month treatment, 24 participants experienced a new suicidal event, defined as new onset or worsening of suicidal thinking or a suicide attempt. This rate of recurrence is lower than what previous studies among suicidal patients have found, suggesting that this treatment approach may be a promising intervention. In addition, more than 70 percent of these teens—a population that is typically difficult to keep in treatment—completed the acute phase of the therapy. However, many participants discontinued the treatment during the continuation phase, suggesting that treatment may need to include more frequent sessions during the acute phase, and limited sessions during the continuation phase.

The study revealed some characteristics that could predict recurrent suicidality, including high levels of self-reported suicidal thinking and depression, a history of abuse, two or more previous suicide attempts, and a strong sense of hopelessness. In addition, a high degree of family conflict predicted suicidality, while family support and cohesion acted as a protective factor against suicide reattempts. Other studies have found similar results, according to the researchers.

Significance
Although the study cannot address effectiveness of the treatment because it was not randomized, it sheds light on characteristics that identify who is most at risk for suicide reattempts, and what circumstances may help protect teens from attempting suicide again. In addition, the study found that 10 of the 24 suicide events occurred within four weeks of the beginning of the study—before they could receive adequate treatment. This suggests that a "front-loaded" intervention in which the most intense treatment is given early on, would likely reduce the risk of suicide reattempt even more.

What's Next
The effectiveness of CBT-SP—alone or in conjunction with antidepressant medication—will need to be tested in randomized clinical trials. In the meantime, because many suicide events occurred shortly after the beginning of the trial, the researchers suggest that clinicians emphasize safety planning and provide more intense therapy in the beginning of treatment. In addition, they note that therapy should focus on helping teens develop a tolerance for distress; work to improve the teen's home, school and social environment; and rigorously pursue coping strategies for teens who experienced childhood trauma such as abuse.

References
Vitiello B, Brent D, Greenhill L, Emslie G, Wells K, Walkup J, et al.. Depressive symptoms and clinical status during the treatment of adolescent suicide attempters. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48(10):997-1004.

Brent D, Greenhill L, Compton S,Emslie G, Wells K, Walkup J, et al. The treatment of adolescent suicide attempters (TASA): predictors of suicidal events in an open treatment trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2009;48(10):987-996.

Stanley B, Brown G, Brent D, Wells K, Poling K, Curry J, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): treatment model, feasibility and acceptability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2009;48(10):1005-1013.

Friday, September 25, 2009

Vacation

Hi Everyone,
I will be on vacation from tomorrow until next Saturday, then I will
be back blogging.
Take Care,
Janet :)

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

MINDS ON THE EDGE



Hello Everyone,
I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I came across this last night. I am planning on joining in on the conversation. I hope you will too. Take Care, Thanks for visiting my blog. Janet :)

"If we can talk about mental illness, so can you."
On PBS, online and in the community, MINDS ON THE EDGE is expanding the conversation about mental illness. Join us in encouraging this urgently needed dialogue everywhere from kitchen tables to coffee shops, from town halls to state houses, in libraries and at professional meetings. Answers we need to meet this challenge can only emerge from a robust public conversation.
You are a critical part of this civic dialogue.
Start the conversation with friends, neighbors and colleagues.
There are so many ways to take part.

* Share your experience and your views and be a part of the online community.
1. Email web links to people who would want to consider these issues.
2. Join the Facebook fan page and use yours to spread the word.
3. Follow us on Twitter and retweet to your followers.
4. Contribute your perspective on YouTube




http://www.mindsontheedge.org/

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

NIMH First Direct Evidence Instability is the Normal State of the Brain’s Cortex

Shattered Pictures, Images and Photos

Hi Everyone,
I hope you are doing well. I am doing good. I just recieved this update from NIMH.
This discovery is very promising. Thanks for visiting my blog and have a great day. Take Care, Janet :)


First Direct Evidence: Instability is the Normal State of the Brain’s Cortex
Might Aberrant Neuronal “Avalanches” Signal Mental Illness?
Neuronal avalanches in monkey cortex

Even when we're not doing much of anything, our brain's cortex, or outer mantle, is bustling with activity. In fact, scientists for the first time have detected "avalanches" of cortex activity in awake monkeys at rest.

They've also discovered that these bursts of synchronous neuronal activity aren't just random, but rather precisely ordered. Large avalanches are followed by smaller and smaller avalanches, much like the aftershocks of an earthquake. This type of ordering reveals that the normal state of cortex circuitry is at a tipping point: at the edge of instability — like rocks along an earthquake fault.

"Mental illness may involve disturbances in this delicate balance, and abnormal avalanche patterns are potentially detectable," explained NIMH's Dietmar Plenz, Ph.D. "Being in such a state of instability allows neurons to telegraph information optimally across varying distances and to quickly adapt to new challenges. This makes it possible for the cortex to grow through development and expand through evolution without changes in its architecture."

Plenz and colleagues report on their study of neuronal avalanches online during the week of August 24, 2009 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Background

Understanding the cortex's complex functional architecture has posed challenges for researchers. Plenz's earlier studies in cell cultures and brain slices suggested that cortex tissue is organized like grains of sand in a sand pile - with the potential for even a few grains to trigger large avalanches. Periods of relative calm are punctuated by the spontaneous, synchronous avalanches. To confirm these findings in intact, awake animals, Plenz and colleagues recorded electrical signals in different parts of the cortex of two monkeys that were resting in a chair.
Results of This Study

The researchers observed avalanches, synchronous bursts of neural activity across varying expanses of cortex, in a pattern that implies a specific structure. The neuronal avalanches seem to obey laws similar to those that characterize their geological counterparts. Again like earthquakes, smaller avalanches are more common than bigger ones. Their size can range from involving clusters of cells to widespread networks.

"Avalanches function at any scale, bridging a 1 mm distance in the same way as they bridge a 10 mm distance as the brain develops or evolves," explained Plenz.
Significance

The state of instability appears to be a general property of cortex tissue. There are hints that disorders of thinking, such as schizophrenia, could involve a breakdown in this critical state, leading to aberrant neuronal avalanche activity, say the researchers.
What's Next?

Plenz and NIMH colleagues are studying this possibility using a non-invasive technique called magnetoencephalography (MEG), which images electrical activity deep in the brain. They are comparing cortex activity in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, looking for quantifiable neural signatures of abnormal avalanche activity.

"If a brain doesn't show the normal, synchronous avalanche pattern, this could signal a brain disorder," said Plenz.

Even though the monkey was just resting in a chair, neuronal avalanches were spontanously sparking in its brain's outer mantle, or cortex. Electrodes (black dots) detected these synchronous bursts (colored circles) of neural activity. The diameter and color of the circles reflects the varying size of the avalanches, which occurred as disparate clusters of synchronous activity. Despite their irregular appearances, the avalanche patterns are highly organized in space and time obeying precise rules similar to those found for earthquakes. This suggests that the cortex is normally organized in a state with the potential for such critical activity.
Reference

Spontaneous cortical activity in awake monkeys composed of neuronal avalanches. Petermann T, Thiagarajan TC, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA, Chialvo DR, Plenz D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 26.